Friday, May 21, 2021, 09:14 (GMT+7)
Lenin’s doctrine on defending the Socialist Fatherland and CPV’s application

The doctrine on protecting the Socialist Fatherland is a great contribution of V.I. Leninist into the Marxist-Leninist theory which has been creatively applied by the Communist Party of Vietnam in the process of leading the people to win national independence, unify the country, firmly build and defend the Fatherland.

1. Lenin’s theory on defending the Socialist Fatherland

From the reality of the world situation in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century and the struggle against the invasion of imperialism, protecting the young Soviet government - the first socialist state in the world; at the same time, inheriting the idea of armed mass to protect the achievements of the socialist revolution of K. Marx and F. Engels, V.I. Lenin has summarised, supplemented, developed and built up the doctrine on protecting the Socialist Fatherland. In particular, he generalised and explained the principles for the defence of the socialist Fatherland of the worker class and working people, such as: objective inevitability, objective duties, methods, forces and strength to protect the socialist Fatherland; the leadership of the Communist Party, the management of the State; building and strengthening defence capabilities; organise and build a new army; armed issues for the entire people; the relationship between construction and protection of the socialist Fatherland, etc.

According to Lenin, in order to protect the achievements of the revolution, the proletariat must take up arms to fight to protect the socialist Fatherland. He wrote: “Without holding the weapon to protect the socialist republic, we cannot survive. The ruling class never gives up the government to the ruled. But the ruled class must prove in reality that they are not only capable of overthrowing, exploiting, but also able to organise themselves and mobilise everything to protect themselves”. At the same time, protecting the Fatherland is always associated with the protection of the Communist Party, the State and the socialist regime. He pointed out that: "We agree on Fatherland protection, but the war to keep the country that we are taking is a war to protect the socialist Fatherland, and socialism…”.

In the context of the newly born Soviet State, to counter the armed onslaught of imperialism and internal reactionary forces, Lenin emphasised the method of fighting with arms of the proletariat and working masses to protect the Fatherland; bringing into full play the aggregate strength of the entire Party, the entire people, the worker - farmer - military mass force, under the leadership of the Communist Party, the organisation and management of the Soviet Government, including the armed forces as the core. In particular, Lenin paid special attention to building and promoting the political and spiritual factor of the working people, he pointed out: “In every war, in the end, victory depends on the morale of the mass that are shedding blood on the battlefield”. In addition, Lenin was always interested in building and consolidating national defence both in terms of potential and posture, improving the country's defence capability. He told us to take advantage of peaceful times, of all favourable conditions, make every effort to build economic, political, social, cultural, scientific, technical, military potentials and prepare the country and encourage the entire Party, people and military to turn the defence potentials and posture into real power to protect the socialist Fatherland. It is the responsibility of the entire people under the leadership of the Communist Party and the organisation and management of the proletariat State. He affirmed: "The absolute duty of the entire working people is to bring out all of our efforts to restore and strengthen the defence capability of the country" and "Because we advocate Fatherland protection, we should have a serious attitude towards the issue of defence capabilities and war preparation”. Closely combining two strategic tasks of building and protecting the socialist Fatherland is the issue that Lenin always cared for, and the principle in the implementation process. He proposed the theoretical system, principles on the organisation, construction and operation of the new army of the working class; at the same time, he required that the Communist Party and the Communist State pay attention to building a powerful army, acting as the core in the cause of national defence, on the basis of the arming the entire people.

The practice of protecting the achievements of the Russian October Revolution led by Lenin and Bolshevik Party and Fatherland protection of the socialist countries have affirmed the great scientific and revolutionary values of this doctrine. Those ideas are not only of historical value but also very relevant which continue to direct the protection of the current socialist Fatherland.

2. Application of the Communist Party of Vietnam

During the leadership of the revolution, the Communist Party of Vietnam, headed by President Ho Chi Minh, was steadfast in applying Lenin’s theory and proposed sound revolutionary lines for building and defending the Fatherland which are suitable for each historical period, especially in the national renewal. First of all, the Party's theoretical thinking on the defence of the Fatherland has developed, shifting from considering the defence of the Fatherland mainly on military and war matters to the thought of defending the Fatherland by synergy and forces, protecting the Fatherland right from the peacetime, from early and afar, and since the country is not in danger.

The Party has determined and properly resolved the relationship between two strategic tasks: building and defending the Fatherland, that is: “Building and defending the country is the rule of existence and development of our nation. Building socialism and defending the socialist Fatherland is the development law of our country's revolution”. This is a correct and normative assertion, based on the theory and practice of our country's revolution under the leadership of the Party, as well as throughout the nation's history. On that basis, the 13th Congress of the Party continues to define: “Socio-economic development is the centre; Party building is the key; Cultural development is the spiritual foundation; ensuring national defence and security is critical and regular”.

Regarding the goal of protecting the Fatherland, the Party's awareness is getting increasingly deeper and more comprehensive, clearly seeing the dialectical relationship between nature - history and politics – society aspects. Resolution of the 13th Congress of the Party determined that: “Firmly defending the independence, sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity of the Fatherland, protecting the Party, State, People, socialist regime, culture and national interests; maintaining a peaceful environment, political stability, national security and human security; building an orderly, disciplined, safe and healthy society for the country's development in the socialist orientation ”.

Regarding partners and subjects of Vietnam revolution, our Party pointed out: those who respect for independence, sovereignty, establish and expand friendship, cooperative and equal relations for mutual benefit with Vietnam are our partners. Any force with conspires and acts against our country's goals in the cause of national construction and defence are the object of struggle. Such concept represents the development of the Party's mindset and awareness of the object and partner which see the interplay and transformation between objects and partners, thereby, creating favourable conditions for building and defending the Fatherland, especially in foreign affairs and international cooperation.

In terms of modes and forces, the Party advocates to bring into full play the synergy of the entire nation, of the entire political system in combination with the power of the times, to make the most of the consensus and support of international community. Have plans to prevent the dangers of war and conflict early and from afar and settle disputes by peaceful means in accordance with international law. Strengthen national defence and security capabilities; build and promote strongly "people's heart and mind posture" in the people's national defence and people's security; build and firmly consolidate the entire people's defence posture and the people's security posture. Closely and effectively combine economic, cultural, social and foreign affairs with defence and security and between defence and security with the economy, culture, society and foreign affairs.

Loyally and creatively applying Lenin’s doctrine on building a new army of the working class, our Party always pays attention to set out the guidelines and principles for organising and building a revolutionary, regular, seasoned and increasingly modern people's Army with political strength as the basis; improving the overall quality and combat strength to ensure the Army is absolutely loyal to the Party, the Fatherland and the People. As a result, our Army, together with the entire Party, the entire people, has made glorious victories, greatly contributing to the cause of national liberation and reunification, and really played the core role in the cause of national defence. Currently, in the face of the requirement for the cause of building and defending the Fatherland in the new situation, the 13th Congress of the Party has determined: “Building the revolutionary, regular, elite and increasingly modern people's Army with some corps and services being developed straight to modernity. By 2025, to basically build a lean, compact and strong Army, creating a solid premise for building a revolutionary, regular, elite and modern Army by 2030”. At the same time, to maintain and strengthen the absolute and direct leadership in all aspects of the Party, the centralised and unified management of the State over the People's Army, the People's Public Security and the cause of national defence and security. Improve the quality and efficiency of party work, political work to meet the requirements of building a strong force in politics, as the core in the cause of national defence.

Currently, the task of building and defending the Fatherland is posing high requirements. Therefore, more than ever, the entire Party, the entire army and the entire people need to deeply realise, apply and develop creatively Lenin’s doctrine on Fatherland protection and propose proper ways and strategies for firmly protecting the Socialist Vietnam Fatherland in the new situation.

Senior Colonel, PhD. NGUYEN TIEN CHUNG, National Defence Academy

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